Speech Therapy / Spraakterapie

THE ROLE OF THE SPEECH/LANGUAGE THERAPIST (SLT)

The different SLT related aspects that could lead to learning disabilities (that we evaluate and address in therapy), include the following:

  • Speech and articulation errors:  When sounds and / or words can not be produced accurately it leads to poor intelligibility of speech, reading problems and spelling errors.  Stuttering is also included in this category.
  • Phonological processes:  When the child is able to produce sounds correctly, but uses it wrongly in speech.  It presents itself as unintelligible speech, as well as poor oral and written skills in the classroom.
  • Hearing: This includes middle ear problems, mild hearing loss and poor listening skills.
  • Auditory processing difficulties:  This includes the following: Poor auditory attention, auditory foreground / background discrimination, auditory memory, sequencing, discrimination, closure, synthesis, analysis, reception and association skills.
  • Language skills: This includes receptive (comprehension) and expressive language problems and difficulties with  English as a second language.
  • Poor pragmatic or conversational skills:  This includes the learner’s ability to apply conversational and social rules e.g. Eye contact, turn-taking, initiating conversations, etc.
  • Written Language: Reading and writing skills.

The above mentioned aspects, all of which are very important for sufficient scholastic progress, are addressed by the speech therapist.

WHO RECEIVES ST?

  • Grade R – 3 learners receive 1 or 2 individual therapy lessons weekly, and / or group therapy.
  • Referrals of older children are considered on merit.

DUTIES AS SPEECH THERAPISTS AT PNS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:

  • Evaluations – formal and informal evaluations of new and current learners in the school.
  • Appropriate referrals to ear,  nose and throat specialists, neurologist, etc.
  • Therapy – individual and group therapy.  Various techniques and approaches suited to each child are implemented.  For example: The Grade 1 ESLL learners benefit from the natural auditory oral approach (NAOA).
  • Parent guidance and interaction are of the utmost importance.  Speech therapists  arrange parent guidance sessions, where language stimulation techniques and approaches are discussed and practically demonstrated.  It is very important to encourage parents of ESLL to stimulate their child by using their home language as much as possible.  this forms a strong foundation which is necessary for the development of a second language.   Parents are then guided and taught how to create a meaningful environment for English Language stimulation at  home.
  • Team discussions and IEP’s – speech therapists form part of the inter-disciplinary team and participate in the formulation of the IEP’s.
  • Hearing screening is done regularly for children in the school and appropriate referrals are made. Speech Therapists also organise the hearing awareness week.
  • Amanuenses – Speech therapists are helping the learners who need amanuensis during exams
  • Computer assisted Reading – Speech therapists are also involved in the computer reading programs being offered at school.

The following are some of the things to look for in a class room to identify the child with auditory processing and language problems:

  • Poor listening skills and doesn’t always react when spoken too.
  • Tasks are incorrectly done or partially completed.
  • Susceptible to auditory distractions.
  • Unable to clap and imitate rhythmic patterns.
  • Struggles to hear the difference between short and long sounds, different vowels, voiced and voiceless sounds.
  • Finds it difficult to tell simple stories in a logical sequence.
  • Hearing or memorizing of rhymes and songs are difficult.
  • Unable to form rhyming words.
  • Difficulty in identifying position of sounds in words for e.g. Which sound do you hear in the middle of “sit” or the last sound in “hunt”?
  • Poor spelling – omission of sounds, wrong order.
  • Reading is poor.
  • Sentence building is insufficient.
  • Interaction is inappropriate.

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DIE ROL VAN DIE SPRAAKTERAPEUT BY PNS

  • Spraak en artikulasie – klanke en woorde wat nie korrek uitgespreek kan word nie
    veroorsaak swak verstaanbare spraak, lees- en spelfoute.Fonologiese prosesse – die kind kan wel die klanke produseer, maar dit word foutief gebruik.
  • Gehoor – dit sluit in middeloorprobleme, geringe gehoorverlies en swak
    luistervaardighede.
  • Ouditiewe prosessering – sluit in: ouditiewe aandag, ouditiewe voorgrond – agtergrond
    onderskeiding, ouditiewe geheue, opeenvolging, diskriminasie, sluiting, sintese, analise, ontvangs en assosiasie.
  • Taal – reseptiewe (begripsprobleme) en ekspressiewe taal (gebruik).
  • Pragmatiese of gespreksvaardighede – die leerder se vermoë om gespreks- en sosiale reëls toe te pas bv. Oogkontak, beurtname, inisiëring van ‘n gesprek ens.
  • Geskrewe taal – lees en skryf.

Die terapeut skenk aandag aan al hierdie vaardighede wat belangrik is om skolasties te kan vorder. Indien bogenoemde nie goed ontwikkel is nie, kan skolastiese vordering benadeel word.

Kinders met ouditiewe prosesseringsprobleme:

  • Swak luistervaardighede, reageer nie altyd as daar met hom gepraat word nie.
  • Opdragte word net gedeeltelik of foutief uitgevoer.
  • Ouditief afleibaar.
  • Kan nie ritmiese patrone klap nie.
  • Hoor nie verskil tussen kort en lang klanke nie (man / maan), gerond vs.
    ongeronde klanke (put / pit).
  • Probleme om eenvoudige stories in logiese volgorde te vertel.
  • Sukkel om rympies en liedjies te memoriseer.
  • Kan nie rymwoordvorming doen nie.
  • Sukkel om klanke in woorde te identifiseer bv. Watter klank hoor jy in die middel
    van “sit”?
  • Swak spelling – weglating van letters in woorde en sinlose spelling.
  • Sukkel met lees.
  • Sinsbou is onvoldoende.
  • Interaksie is ontoepaslik.

Wat doen die ST by Prospectus Novus?

  • Interaksie is ontoepaslik.
  • Evaluerings – formeel en informeel
  • Identifikasie
  • Verwysings
  • Terapie: individueel, groepsterapie
  • Ouerleiding
  • Spanbesprekings – IEP’s
  • Gehoortoetse / sifting
  • Amanuenses
  • Leesperiodes

Wie ontvang spraakterapie?

  • Graad R-3 leerders ontvang een of twee individuele terapiesessies per week, of groepsterapie
  • Verwysing van ouer leerders word op meriete hanteer